CELL RUPTURE  Strain: 		Schizosaccharomyces pombe Machine: 	EmulsiFlex-C160 Pressure: 	28000psi/193MPa  Sample 	cfu/ml 		% viable 	% NOT viable control 		5.1 x 107 	~100 		~0 1 pass 		5.0 x 103 	0.01 		99.99  Strain: 		E. coli (BL21) Machine: 	EmulsiFlex-C160 Pressure: 	20000psi/138MPa  Sample 	cfu/ml 		% viable 	% NOT viable control 		4.06 x 109 	~100 		~0 1 pass 		1.77 x 107 	0.44 		99.56 2 passes 	1.70 x 106 	0.04 		99.96 3 passes 	2.4 x 104 	5.9 x 10-4 	~100 A control sample of unruptured Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe after one pass at 28000 psi/193MPa through the EmulsiFlex-C160. Only cell fragments remain.
DISPERSIONS  A whole range of dispersions can be run through  EmulsiFlex high-pressure homogenizers to reduce  particle size as well as make the size distribution  uniform. EmulsiFlex homogenizers are involved in  the processing of dispersions such as drug dispersions, herb extracts, industrial coatings, and  pigments.  Shown is a sample of a dry crystalline (amorphous)  powder run through an EmulsiFlex homogenizer  at 25000 psi/173 MPa. An unprocessed dispersion with a starting size range of 10-100 microns (600X magnification). Processed sample of uniform, 1 micron particles (100X magnification). LIPOSOMES  AVESTIN's high pressure homogenizers are used  all over the world for liposome research and  production. Only EmulsiFlex homogenizers offer  the combination of high pressure homogenization,  high pressure membrane filtration or a combined,  homogenization/filtration process. Liposomes prepared using the EmulsiFlex high-pressure  homogenizer, extruder, or both in combination.  Combined homogenization yields 113.7 nm in one pass  and 89.9 nm in two passes. An example of uniform, unilamellar liposomes. EMULSIONS  Oil In Water Emulsion Sample 			Pressure (psi)	Diameter (nm) unprocessed 		- 				656 1 pass 			16,000 				77 3 passes 		16,000 				59 5 passes 		16,000 				42  Pharmaceutical Emulsion Sample 			Homogenizing	Mean Droplet Pressure (psi)	Diameter (nm) control 				- 				3,500 1 pass 			20,000 				590 3 passes 		20,000 				185 5 passes 		20,000 				140 Pharmaceutical drug emulsion 'A' before processing. The starting particle size is large (5-10 microns) and the distribution wide. Pharmaceutical emulsion 'A' after processing at 18000psi/124MPa. Note the dramatic reduction in size (52nm) and the narrower distribution.